Книга

Экономические, социально-политические, этноконфессиональные проблемы афро-азиатских стран. Памяти Л.И. Рейснера Экономические, социально-политические, этноконфессиональные проблемы афро-азиатских стран. Памяти Л.И. Рейснера

Экономические, социально-политические, этноконфессиональные проблемы афро-азиатских стран. Памяти Л.И. Рейснера

Редакционная коллегия: Ланда Роберт Григорьевич
Ответственный редактор: Бибикова Ольга Павловна
Редакционная коллегия: Бибикова Ольга Павловна
Ответственный редактор: Цветкова Нина Николаевна
Редакционная коллегия: Цветкова Нина Николаевна, Устинова Таисия Николаевна

Институт востоковедения РАН

Москва, 2018, 228 стр.

ISBN: 978–5–89282–846–8

Сборник посвящен памяти выдающегося востоковеда Л.И. Рейснера (1928−1990), в первом разделе помещены статьи, посвященные его жизни и творчеству. Второй раздел — экономический — делится, в свою очередь на три блока. Актуальным проблемам новых технологий, цифровой экономики посвящены статьи о цифровых ТНК из стран Востока, Китае как доноре новых технологий для стран Африки, о рейтинге социального кредита в Китае, о программах развития инноваций в Австралии, об инновациях на транспорте КНР – высокоскоростных железных дорогах; о развитии межконтинентальных магистралей в Казахстане. Другой блок статей посвящен проблемам региональной экономической интеграции: зонам экономического роста в странах Юго-Восточной и Восточной Азии, межрегиональному сотрудничеству субъектов РФ с государствами АСЕАН, перспективам сотрудничества ЕАЭС со странами и группировками Азии. Представлен сравнительный анализ сельского хозяйства Турции и Египта. Раздел сборника, посвященный этноконфессиональным проблемам, включает в себя статью об общине друзов в Сирии и Ливане в период французского мандата и исторический обзор попыток преодолеть суннито-шиитские разногласия в арабском мире. Уделяется внимание анализу событий вокруг Африна, курдского анклава в Сирии, а также состоянию проблемы сирийских беженцев на территории Турции. Здесь же представлен материал об исламском факторе в событиях в Ливии. Отдельно проанализировано положение китайской диаспоры в Индонезии и состояние феминистского движения в Австралии. Гендерная тема продолжена в статье о современной полигамии.

English version

ABSTRACTS

MARINA L. REISNER Lev Igorevich Reisner — my Father and Teacher The article is devoted to what was Lev Reisner in his common life, remaining at the same time researcher and teacher; what had he appreciated, what kind of poems he wrote, what kind of patrimony I got as his daughter; and why is it so important for my personal and professional formation. Keywords: family reminiscences, life and scientific experience of Lev Reisner, poems, translations, quotations, ‗Instead of testament‘.

VIKTOR M. NEMCHINOV Lev Reisner and Glery Shirokov: Economic Dialogues of Two Indologists Lev Reisner‘s 90th anniversary marked in 2018 provides a good opportunity to evaluate the role of dialogue and scholarly co-authorship in the study of Indian economic development. Joint research of Indologists Lev Reisner and Glery Shirokov lasted for about three decades and their co-authorship made a valuable contribution to contemporary Indian studies raising the understanding of the third world economic transformation to a new level. The article investigates the nature, scope and results of academic cooperation between two prominent Russian Indologists who for over three decades worked together studying the lessons and prospects of economic development in the newly liberated countries of the East. The merger of their individual research preferences and general fields of interest gave fruitful and lasting results in the large number of co-authored publications. Keywords: Lev Reisner, Glery Shirokov, Indian studies, co-authorship, academic dialogue, Institute of Oriental studies, humanitarian research.

NINA N. TSVETKOVA Digital TNCs and TNCs of ICT Sector from Asian countries The article provides a detailed analysis of the list of digital transnationals (or multinational enterprises) that was published by UNCTAD in 2017. The place of TNCs from Asian countries in the list is modest. The author tries to show that the role of digital transnationals from Asian countries is underestimated. Positions of TNCs from Asian countries in ICT goods and ICT-services production are very important as it was shown by the author in her previous work. Keywords: digital economy, production of ICT goods and ICT services, digital multinational enterprises, TNCs of ICT sector, TNCs from Asian countries.

TATYANA L. DEYCH China as New Technologies Donor for African Countries Last years, IT industry has become the key of Chinese economy. China is a
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leader in the world export and import of IT products. Almost half of the Chinese companies working in Africa send a new product or a new service to the African market and one-third of the companies introduce a new technology in spheres of their activity. In some cases Chinese companies lower prices for their products through improving technology and service. Africa has gained access to advanced technologies also thanks to the Chinese initiative ―One Belt– One Road‖ (OBOR), which touched some countries of the continent, firstly of the East African region. Keywords: China, Africa, new technologies (IT), Chinese companies, telecommunications, internet, construction, agriculture.

OLGA V. MOSOLOVA Main Directions of Innovation Development in Australia The government of Australia gives great attention to innovations. The country takes over large programs in many fields of scientific research. Encouragement of new scientific research has a great importance in research and development policy of the government. Keywords: Australia, innovations, government policy, research and development programs.

LUDMILA B. ARISTOVA New Projects and Technologies in Railway Transport of Kazakhstan The article reviews the history and current state of the railway transport in the Republic of Kazakhstan, analyzes interstate agreements, programs, technologies, projects of intercontinental international transport highways passing through Kazakhstan emphasizing the high-speed MTC Eurasia project. Keywords: Kazakhstan, railway transport, new projects and technologies.

NELLI K. SEMENOVA Railways of China: Innovative Development as a Place for Further Economic Growth The article examines the influence of innovations on structural transformation in the economy of modern China. In particular, the impact of launching highspeed railroads on stimulating economic and social development of regions, industrial structure and optimizing the spatial structure of cities and improving regional cooperation in China is analyzed. Keywords: People's Republic of China, high-speed railway, regional development.

IRINA V. DERYUGINA Agriculture in Turkey and Egypt: two technological modes of production? The article presents a comparative analysis of macroeconomic indicators of the evolution of agriculture in Turkey and Egypt at the beginning of the XXI century. A short retrospective digression is made to show the point when the vectors of transformation of the agricultural sectors of Turkey and Egypt, formed in
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the framework of a single land-saving technological mode of production, began to diverge. It shows what served as the trigger mechanism of gap. Keywords: Egypt, Turkey, agriculture, technological mode of production, agrarian reform, yield of cereals, labor productivity.

TATYANA S. DENISOVA, NINA G. GAVRILOVA Economic Policy and the State of the Nigerian Economy under the Presidency of Muhammadu Buhari (2015–present) The article examines economic policy, specific features of development and the current state of the economy of the largest country in Tropical Africa — Nigeria. The focus of the authors' attention is placed on the problems and prospects for the implementation of the Economic Recovery and Growth Plan adopted by the government of Muhammadu Buhari in 2016. Keywords: Africa, Nigeria, economy, economic policy, Muhammadu Buhari.

YANA BURAVLEVA Chinese film companies and their activities The film industry is an integral part of the culture of any country. China has recently made a huge leap in this area and achieved results which are comparable to Hollywood and Bollywood. Chinese film companies continue to improve technologies and find new ways to attract viewers. The article analyzes the activities of some of them. Keywords: China, film companies, conglomerates, actors, films.

IULIA SHARIAPOVA Utilization of Digital Technologies: Rating of Social Credit in China The population of the world is constantly growing as does the technological potential of today's digital systems and services. Preservation of public order is one of the areas that is being transformed thanks to new technology, which is especially noticeable in China. The concept is that each citizen would have his own public rating, getting more points by making good public actions and losing points for making bad ones. The algorithm would calculate each public action and reward and limit citizens in all the areas from taking a loan to buying a plane ticket. Now different systems are tested in different regions and not connected into a single one. Still, it seems a question of time as both governments and big corporations are planning invest in digital tools for preservation of public order not only in China, but all over the world and human beings will have to learn to live in this new digital society. Keywords: Digital technologies, China, Big data, Rating of social credit.

GALINA M. KOSTYUNINA Economic Growth Zones as a Factor of Integration Cooperation between East Asian States
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The proposed article analyzes the practice of functioning of the zones of economic growth in the countries of East Asia. Zones promote integration of the participating states because of combining available resources — natural, industrial, financial and labor, and, therefore, contribute to industrial development, investment inflows, export growth and economic growth. Keywords: economic growth zones, East Asia, Northern Growth Zone.

ALEKSANDR A. PAKHOMOV Main Forms of Interaction between Russian Regions and ASEAN Countries The article examines main directions of interregional cooperation in economic and social fields between the Russian federal subjects and ASEAN states. This cooperation has a growing trend and positive impact on the development of Russian federal subjects‘ foreign economic activity and on the humanitarian sphere. Keywords: subjects of Federation, ASEAN States, international cooperation, foreign economic complex, social sphere.

KNIAZ BAGDASARYAN The Asian Integration Agenda of the Eurasian Economic Union The article considers prospective directions of integration cooperation of the EAEU with the countries and groupings of Asia. The aim of the study is to determine the possibilities and limitations of the common foreign economic policy of the Eurasian Economic Union in this area. Keywords: integration, Eurasian Economic Union, preferential agreement, free trade area, trade in services.

ALTUNAY ILGAR ALIYEVA Syrian Refugees in Turkey‘s Domestic and Foreign Policy The Turkish Republic, which accepted the largest number of Syrian refugees, has faced serious economic and social problems, threats to its national security and stability. However, the migration issue has taken an important place in Turkish foreign policy. Keywords: Turkey, refugees, Syria, Syrian conflict.

TIMUR S. VASILENKO Afrin — Anthropology of Crisis In January 2018, many people around the world heard the words: ―Olive branch‖, Kurds, and Afrin. Many of them may have heard the name of this small town for the first time. How did it happen that it has long remained one of the safest places in Syria, and now it is bleeding? How did it start, who used whom and cheated? Keywords: Afrin. «Olive branch». Kurds. Syria. Turkey.

YURI N. ZININ Post-Qaddafi Libya: Role of Islamic Factor
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The article examines a role of Islamic factor in Libya at the new post- Qaddafi era after the victory of the February Revolution. The article deals mainly with the background of the political Islam and its contemporary branches in this country, covers its ongoing activations during the last seven years and perspectives of this phenomena in the future. Keywords: Arab spring, Qaddafi, revolution, Islam, Brothers-Moslems, Salafism, Islamism, tribal, ethnic composition.

OLGA S. CHIKRIZOVA ―Ecumenism‖ in Islam: Historical Milestones in Overcoming of Sunni-Shi‘a Antagonism The article is dedicated to the problem of overcoming Sunni-Shi‘a antagonism in the history of Islam. The author discovers attempts to bring together the two largest Islamic trends and proves that all such attempts were initiated ―from above‖, were caused by political rather than religious motives, and resulted in failure. Keywords: Sunni-Shi‘a antagonism, ―ecumenism‖ in Islam, Najaf conference (1743), pan-Islamism, Jamȃʾat al-taqrȋb, R.M. Khomeini.

RAISA M. SHARIPOVA The Organization of Islamic Cooperation: Peace and Security Problems The article deals with the promotion of the Organization of Islamic cooperation for peace and security: its role in resolving the Palestinian problem for her master, as well as in the fight against Islamophobia and terrorism. Keywords: The Organization of Islamic cooperation, peace, security, the Palestinian problem, Islamophobia, terrorism.

VLADIMIR P. KIRICHENKO Druzes of Syria and Lebanon during the French Mandate (1920−1946) The article is dedicated to the participation of the Druzes in the political life of Syria and Lebanon during the French mandate. Representatives of the Druze communities took an active part in the political life of these countries, including the struggle for independence. A special role in this struggle was played by the Revolt, raised in Syria by the Druze sheikh Sultan Al-Atrash in 1925. Keywords: Syria, Lebanon, Druze, mandate, France.

OLGA L. PETROVA Chinese Diaspora in Indonesia in the Context of Democratic Reforms The Chinese diaspora has always played one of important roles in shaping the socio-economic structure of Indonesia. But the life of the Chinese minority is permeated with ethnic conflicts, which began to weaken only with the beginning of democratic reforms. On the one hand the life of Chinese minority in Indonesia now improves, but discrimination has not entirely disappeared. The main difficulty is still ―social envy‖. Today Chinese minority can freely manifest themselves in various fields after a long struggle against discrimination. Chinese mi
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nority tried to bridge the gap between the Chinese and non-Chinese ways of life in various ways, including through the cultural-worldview component. Keywords: Indonesia, Chinese minority, Anti-Chinese sentiment, Chinese New Year, democratization, culture.

MARIA DRUGOMILOVA Main Stages of Feminism Development in Australia Women‘s position in society has always been determined by gender stereotypes. Australian women, both ―white‖ and aborigines had to go a long way, at the end of which they received civil rights. The article considers the main stages of feminism development in Australia and modern trends. Keywords: the history of feminism, the women of Australia, the aborigines, the struggle for women's rights.

OLGA P. BIBIKOVA Polygamy in the Contemporary World Polygamy was always considered as an attribute of backward societies. But in the contemporary world, polygamy exists not only in developing countries, but also in the USA (the example of Mormons). Moreover, the causes of polygamy reducing the number of men on the planet, such as wars, still remain. Nowadays new causes for polygamy are added, such as labor migration, erosion of the traditional marriage. Keywords: polygamy, polygyny, war, migration, traditional marriage.

Содержание

ВВЕДЕНИЕ .... 6
Рейснер М.Л. Лев Игоревич Рейснер — мой отец и учитель...23
Немчинов В.М. Лев Рейснер и Глерий Широков: экономические диалоги двух индологов ....34
Новые технологии и афро-азиатские страны
Цветкова Н.Н. Цифровые ТНК и ТНК сферы ИКТ из стран Востока ....43
Дейч Т.Л. Китай как донор новых технологий для стран Африки ....59
Мосолова О.В. Основные направления развития новых технологий в Австралии ....68
Аристова Л.Б. Новые проекты и технологии в сфере железнодорожного транспорта Казахстана ....74
Семенова Н.К. Железные дороги Китая: инновационное развитие как залог дальнейшего экономического роста ....80
Отрасли и экономические стратегии
Дерюгина И.В. ельское хозяйство Турции и Египта: два технологических способа производства? ...85
Денисова Т.., Гаврилова Н.Г. Экономическая политика и состояние нигерийской экономики в период президентства Мухаммаду Бухари (2015 — н.в.) ...94
Буравлѐва Я.А. Крупные китайские кинокомпании и их деятельность...100
Шаряпова Ю. Применение цифровых технологий: рейтинг социального доверия в Китае.....106
Региональная интеграция Костюнина Г.М. Зоны экономического роста как фактор интеграционного взаимодействия стран Восточной Азии ...111 Пахомов А.А. Основные формы взаимодействия российских регионов со странами АЕАН ...121
Багдасарян К.М. Азиатский вектор интеграционной повестки Евразийского экономического союза ...130
Этноконфессиональные проблемы Ближневосточный узел Алиева Алтунай Илгар кызы. Проблема сирийских беженцев во внутренней и внешней политике Турецкой Республики .......139 Василенко Т.. Африн — антропология кризиса...147
Зинин Ю.Н. Ливия после Каддафи: роль исламского фактора ...158
Чикризова О.. «Экуменизм» в исламе: исторические этапы преодоления суннито-шиитского антагонизма ...166
Шарипова Р.М. Организация исламского сотрудничества (ОИ): проблемы мира и безопасности ...173
Кириченко В.П. Друзы ирии и Ливана в период французского мандата (1920−1946) ....181
Проблемы Юго-Восточной Азии и Австралии
Петрова О.Л. Китайская диаспора в Индонезии в условиях демократических реформ ...187
Другомилова М.А. Основные этапы развития феминизма в Австралии ....194
Социальная антропология Бибикова О.П. Полигамия в современном мире...203
АВТОРЫ (AUTHORS) ....220
ABSTRACTS ...223